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Undergraduate study, Queen Mary, University of London
Ref No (click to see in context)CS
Extent16 standard boxes, 2 outsize boxes, 2 outsize items in plan chest, 1 item in original box
Creator NameSkeel, Caroline Anne James (1872-1951)
DescriptionThe collection contains the papers of Caroline Skeel,1850-1964, comprising of papers relating to her time at Westfield College; including working papers 1850-c.1926; photographs 1905-mid 20th Century; letters 1908-1950; donations 1930-1943; presentations from the College 1925-1929; and papers relating to her Professorship 1925.

Also comprises of personal papers; including papers relating to her school 1880-1925; Girton College 1890-1927; London School of Economics 1904-1914; Certificates and Testimonies c.1913; the time that she lived in Hendon c.1935; her family 1925-1943; her legacy 1933-1954; biographical papers 1949-1954; financial papers 1899-1916; involvement with societies 1928-1930; letters 1904-1949; and personal items and memorabilia 1878- c.1890.

The collection also contains family papers 1785-1928; including those of the Skeel family 1820-1923; Smith family 1809-1889; and James family 1794-1869; mainly comprising of educational papers, working papers, and legal documents such as wills, as well as papers relating to family properties 1785-1928; and some family photographs c.1876; and items of unknown context, 18th Century - late 19th Century.
Admin HistorySKEEL , CAROLINE ANNE JAMES ( 1872 - 1951 ) was born on the 9 Feb. 1872 in Hampstead , where her family resided at 45 Downshire Hill. She was the sixth of the seven children; one son and six daughters (two died in infancy) of William James Skeel (1822 - 1899) and Anne James, his wife (1831 - 1895). Her father, the son of Henry Skeel (d. 1847 ), a farmer, was born at Castle Hill in the parish of Haycastle, Pembrokeshire, and became a successful London merchant with offices in Finsbury Chambers in the city and a director of the South Australian Land Mortgage and Agency Co. Ltd . Her mother was a first cousin of her husband; the daughter of Thomas and Martha James of Clarbeston, Pembrokeshire.
Initially educated at home, from the age of eight Caroline attended a private school; the South Hampstead High School (c.1884-87). She then attended Notting Hill High School (1887-90). Following this she entered Girton College, Cambridge (1891-95). She was a St. Dunstan's Exhibitioner and took a double first in classics in 1894. She then took a first in the historical tripos, in 1895. She was awarded the Agnata Butler Prize in 1893 and 1894, and the Thérèsa Montefiore Memorial Prize in 1895.

Skeel joined Westfield in 1896 as a visiting lecturer in classics, but was soon also placed in charge of the history department and drew on both disciplines in her first original work, Travel in the First Century after Christ (Cambridge,1901), which won Girton's Gibson prize in 1898. But it was history that prevailed, as shown by her enrolment in 1901 as a postgraduate student at the London School of Economics to work on the dissertation, The Council in the Marches of Wales: a study in local government in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (London, 1904), which in 1904 earned her the Hutchinson medal and in 1903 the London D.Litt. At Westfield she combined a heavy teaching programme with responsibility from 1902 for the college library, attracting gifts in kind from learned societies and others which substantially improved its stock; in her role as a recognized teacher of London University, she served from 1902 to 1906 as secretary to the board of studies in history.

She wrote a number of articles and reviews in English Historical Review, Archaeologia Cambrensis, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society , Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, History , and Cambridge Historical Journal, most of which deal with the history of Wales and the Marches . She contributed a chapter on Wales under Henry VII to Tudor Studies, ed. R.W. Seton-Watson (1924), and to T. Auden, Memorials of Old Shropshire (1908). She gained the Gamble Prize in 1914 for an essay on the influence of the writings of Sir John Fortesque. She was also one of the editors of the S.P.C.K. texts for students and arranged the Selections from Giraldus Cambrensis and the Selections from Matthew Paris, Nos. 2-3 in that series (London 1918).

The onset in 1907 of severe and lasting depression removed Skeel, though only temporarily, from the academic scene, to which she eventually returned on her reappointment to Westfield in 1911.

Promoted in 1919 to a university readership, Skeel was able to contribute in various ways to the success of a new venture close to her heart, the Institute of Historical Research. She was a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society 1914-28, serving on the Council and the Publications Committee 1921-27, and a member of the Cymmrodorion Society, the Classical Association and the Historical Association. In 1925, she was advanced to a professorship, the first to be held at Westfield.

But within a year symptoms of depression reappeared and in 1929 she took early retirement. She lived until her death at 24 Hayes Crescent, Golders Green, following a stroke on 25 February 1951. She had inherited the large fortunes left by her father and brother William Henry Skeel (d. 1925, leaving over £305,000), the total of which amounted at her death to some £270,000 (gross). She bequeathed large sums to Church charities but she bequeathed the bulk of it to Westfield, already the beneficiary of gifts made anonymously during her lifetime. After her death it was revealed that she had anonymously given away in her lifetime about £30,000 to poor families and charities.
ArrangementThis collection has been arranged by provenance and divided into two sub-fonds; Caroline Skeel, and Family Papers.
Copyright StatementNo material may be published without the prior permission of both the copyright holder and the Library. All applications for publication
must be made to the College Archivist in the first instance, but responsibility for ensuring copyright clearance rests with the user.
Access StatusOpen



CodePerson or Corporate Body Name
DS/UK/247Lodge; Eleanor Constance (1869-1936); Principal, Historian
DS/UK/34Maynard; Constance Louisa (1849-1935); Mistress, Educational pioneer
DS/UK/64University of London; 1836-; Higher Education Institution
DS/UK/57Firth; Catherine B (fl. 1905); Doctor of History; Historian
DS/UK/55University of Cambridge; Girton College; 1873-; Higher Education Institution
DS/UK/205Welsh; Elizabeth (1843-1921); Mistress of Girton College 1885–1903.
DS/UK/242Sélincourt; Agnes de (1872-1917); Principal, Missionary
DS/UK/30Westfield College; 1882-1989; Higher Education Institution
DS/UK/284Moilliet; Louisa Gabrielle (fl.1879-1922); Niece of Constance Maynard; daughter of Dora and Francis Moilliet.
DS/UK/312Moilliet; Francis Keir (fl.1885-1954); Nephew of Constance Maynard.
DS/UK/200Church Missionary Society (CMS); 1799-; Voluntary charity.
DS/UK/367Martin; Eveline Christiana (1894-1960); Dr.; Historian
DS/UK/368Titterton; Anna Frances (1898-1988); Author.
DS/UK/369Walpole; Kathleen A (c.1899-1987); Headteacher.
DS/UK/370Bourdillan; C (fl.1929)
DS/UK/371University of London; Bedford College; 1849-1985; Higher Education Institution
DS/UK/375The Times; 1785-; National newspaper.
DS/UK/376Postan; Eileen Edna LePoer (1889-1940); Professor.; Academic.
DS/UK/377Smuts; Jan Christiaan (1870-1950); General; South African and British Commonwealth statesman.
DS/UK/378Gedge; Evelyn Colpoys (1888-1974); Secretary to Westfield College Council
DS/UK/379Priestman; (Olga) Barbara (c.1905-1975); Headteacher.
DS/UK/380Davis; Beryl M; History Student at Westfield College, 1900-1905.
DS/UK/381Mace; Frances A (c.1887-fl.1925); Teacher
DS/UK/382Shetton; Grace (fl.1917)
DS/UK/383Bigland; Percy (c.1858-1926); Portrait, genre and landscape painter.
DS/UK/384de Biden Footner; Frances Amicia (1874-1961); Artist.
DS/UK/385J.J. Patrickson & Sons Ltd; 1959-1975; Picture Framemakers.
DS/UK/386South Hampstead High School; 1876-; School
DS/UK/387Notting Hill and Ealing School; 1873-; School.
DS/UK/388Girls' Day School Trust; 1872-; School Trust.
DS/UK/389Butler; Agnata Frances (1867-1931)
DS/UK/390Hinton; Dora Louisa (1872-1930); Headmistress.
DS/UK/391University of London; London School of Economics and Political Science; 1895-; Higher Education Institution
DS/UK/392H B Supperstone & Co.; c.1950-1982; Solicitors.
DS/UK/393Skeel; William Henry (1850-1925); Brother of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/395Stretton; Grace (c.1893-fl.1951); Research Assistant, Historical Section, Cabinet Office .
DS/UK/396Davies; J (fl.1951); Cousin of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/397Church Army; 1882-; Evangelistic Organisation.
DS/UK/398Westminster Bank; 1834-1970; Bank
DS/UK/401Huxted; Sarah (fl.1951-1964); Maid of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/403Williams; David (1900-1978); Lecturer
DS/UK/405Bank of England; 1649-; Bank
DS/UK/406Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy; 1655-; Charity.
DS/UK/407Skeel; Emily Jane (1853-1926); Sister of Caroline Skeel. Teacher.
DS/UK/410Goulden, Mesquita and Co.; fl.1928-1933; Solicitors
DS/UK/409Kimber Bull and Co. Solicitors; c.1911-1970
DS/UK/411Wilkins; Mary; Maid of Caroline Skeel
DS/UK/413Mill Hill Historical Society; 1929-; Local Historical Society
DS/UK/414Royal Society of Teachers; 1929-1949; Society of Teachers
DS/UK/412Hall; Hubert (1857-1944); Reader.
DS/UK/415Skeel; Elizabeth (fl.1843-1863); Née James.; Grandmother of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/416Heales and Son; fl.1856-1870; Proctors, Doctors Commons.
DS/UK/417Skeel; Henry (fl.1820-c.1845); Grandfather of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/418Skeel; Thomas (c.1816-1890); Uncle of Caroline Skeel. Apothecary.
DS/UK/419Hayward and Son; fl.1888; Builders.
DS/UK/420Perkins; Amy (c.1812-c.1890); Née Skeel. Aunt of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/421Skeel; David (1806-1868); Uncle of Caroline Skeel. Apothecary.
DS/UK/422Moore; Thomas (fl. 1819-1846); Apothecary.
DS/UK/423Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London; 1617-
DS/UK/425Davies; Jane (fl. 1848-1850); Née James. Great Aunt of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/427Skeel; Jane (1814-1883); Aunt of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/428HM Revenue and Customs; 2005-; Non-ministerial department of the British Government.
DS/UK/429Skeel; Elizabeth (1810-1892); Aunt of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/430Skeel; William James (1822-1899); Father of Caroline Skeel. Export Merchant
DS/UK/431Wilson (fl.1834-1835)
DS/UK/432Steward (fl.1834-1835)
DS/UK/433Muter; Robert (fl.1844-1846)
DS/UK/434James; John (fl.1840s); Uncle of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/435James; William (1779-1848); Great Uncle of Caroline Skeel. Apothecary.
DS/UK/436Skeel; Anne (1831-1895); Née James. Mother of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/437The College of Teachers; 1846-; Examining body and learned society.
DS/UK/439Redfern; J (fl.1866-1870); Teacher at Abercrombie Villa Collegiate school, Hampstead.
DS/UK/438Abercrombie Villa Collegiate School, Hampstead; fl.1866-1870; School.
DS/UK/440Skeel; Maria Elizabeth (1855-1933); Sister of Caroline Skeel. Headteacher
DS/UK/442University of Oxford; 11th century-; Higher Education Institution
DS/UK/254University of Cambridge; 1209-; Higher Education Institution
DS/UK/203University of St Andrews; 1413-; Higher Education Institution
DS/UK/443Nottingham Journal; fl.1768-1921; Newspaper.
DS/UK/444Nottingham Daily Express; 1860-1918; Newspaper.
DS/UK/445Nottingham High School for Girls; 1875-; School
DS/UK/447Skeel; Amy (c.1875-1877); Sister of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/448James; John (c.1744-1832); Great Grandfather of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/449James; George (-1821)
DS/UK/450St Bartholomew's Hospital; 1123-; Hospital
DS/UK/451Freese; Phillip C (fl.1837); Employed William James and William J Skeel.
DS/UK/452Skeel; Sarah (1819-); Aunt of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/453Cobb; Mary (fl.1765-1821)
DS/UK/454James; David (1777-fl.1819); Great Uncle of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/455James; Mary (fl.1819); Great Grandmother of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/457James; Maria (1845-c.1897); Aunt of Caroline Skeel.
DS/UK/458Smith; George Edward (fl.1829-1889.)
DS/UK/459Allegati; Charles (fl.1829-1870)
DS/UK/460Lay; G (fl.1829-1870)
DS/UK/461Smith; Sarah (fl.1829-1870); Wife of George Edward Smith.
DS/UK/462Smith; Maria (fl.1815); Wife of John Smith.
DS/UK/463Smith; Thomas (-c.1809)
DS/UK/464Smith; John (-c.1805); Husband of Maria Smith.
DS/UK/465Smith; Roger (fl.1809)
DS/UK/466Smith; David (fl. 1809)
DS/UK/467Smith; John (fl.1809)
DS/UK/468Humphreys; Patience (fl.1809); Née Smith.
DS/UK/469Humphreys; William (fl.1809); Husband of Patience Humphreys, née Smith.
DS/UK/470Warren; William (fl.1809)
DS/UK/471Husband; Thomas (fl.1809)
DS/UK/121Skeel; Caroline (1872-1951); Historian, Classicist
DS/UK/472Gumley; Martha (fl.1785-1788)
DS/UK/473Howard; Charles (1720-1786); Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Norfolk, Earl of Surrey, Earl of Arundel, Baron Maltravers, Earl Marshal.
DS/UK/474Eyre; Vincent (fl.1785-1788)
DS/UK/475Wright; Francis (fl.1785-1788)
DS/UK/477Manners; Lady; Mary (fl.1788)
DS/UK/478Moore; Adam (fl.1788)
DS/UK/480Thomas; Charles (fl.1788)
DS/UK/479Moore; Francis (fl.1788-1819)
DS/UK/481McDowall; George A (fl.1917-1928); Property Agent.
DS/UK/483Campbell Hooper; 1754-2009; Solicitors firm.
DS/UK/485Boatwright; James (-c.1835)
DS/UK/486Ovenden; William (fl.1835-fl.1849)
DS/UK/487Alice (fl.1876)
DS/UK/488Cobb (fl.1790)
DS/UK/489Twitchell (fl.1790)
DS/UK/490Simmons; John (fl.1798)
DS/UK/491Ramsay; George (fl.1802)
DS/UK/492Martin; Thomas (fl.1802)
DS/UK/493The Worshipful Company of Fishmongers; 1272-; Livery Company.
DS/UK/494Brunswick Hotel and Tavern; 1835-1930; Hotel.
DS/UK/495Young; Brigham (1801-1877); Leader in the Latter Day Saint movement
DS/UK/496Naisbitt; Henry William (1827-1908)
DS/UK/497The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; 1830-; Christian Church movement.
DS/UK/498D'Orsey; Alex J D (1813-1894); Professor.; Academic.
DS/UK/499Graham; A (fl.1882)
DS/UK/500Hill; H J (fl.1886)
DS/UK/501Stirling; James D (fl.1886); Clerk of the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
DS/UK/502High Council of Salt Lake City; 1848-fl.1886; Council
DS/UK/503The Salt Lake Herald Newspaper; c.1870-1909; Newspaper.
DS/UK/662Wilson; Eleanor Mary Carus- (1897-1977); Economic Historian
CodePlace Entry
NA32Scotland/United Kingdom
NA72Wales/United Kingdom
NA258Ireland/United Kingdom
NA262Great Britain/United Kingdom
NA263Hendon/Barnet/Greater London/England/United Kingdom
NA264Clarbeston/Pembrokeshire/Wales/United Kingdom
NA265Rio de Janeiro/Sudeste Region/Brazil/South America
NA266Cape of Good Hope/Western Cape/South Africa/Africa
NA269New York/New York/United States/North and Central America
NA257Hampstead/Camden/London/Greater London/England/United Kingdom
NA271Fulham/Hammersmith and Fulham/London/Greater London/England/United Kingdom
NA14Westminster/City of Westminster/Greater London
NA275Pimlico/City of Westminster/London/Greater London/England/United Kingdom
NA274Richmond/Richmond Upon Thames/London/Greater London/England/United Kingdom
NA273Salt Lake City/Salt Lake/Utah/United States/North and Central America